BR Mag_January-2018_Low Res.
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12. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 12 User s t O r I es
2. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 2
33. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 33 “I have a 14 mile loop that I used to run that I now regularly cover on the BR. It’s really been a fantastic discovery.”
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18. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 18 HGH After Injuries — w eight t raining with Your n on- i njured l imbs to h eal Faster When you’re hurt, even if only slightly, it can put a real damper on your training regimen. he A lth
30. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 30 Doug Campbell User s t O r I es
40. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 40 BIONIC RUNNER email@example.com
26. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 26 The Ultimate in long stride running cross training www.run4.com Get yours today, for a better running tomorrow
13. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 13 Rob Donkersloot doesn’t do things by half measures. Eleven years ago he was a fat fortysomething smoker in danger of a heart attack. Plenty of people in that midlife situation change their habits and start taking a bit of exercise, though plenty of them wait to have the heart attack first. But not Rob – and what he considers “a bit of exercise”would likely kill most ordinary couch potatoes! Rob Donkersloot
23. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 23 World’s best value running trainner f olds for easy transport 8 speed internal gear hub d isc brakes s tar r ating g en2 t rain on your terms
27. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 27 s uperior handling Infinitely variable transmission Amazing performance and value Used by World Champions Marathoners s tar Rating pr edator your weapon choice i m P roved design
4. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 4 t got so bad that, although he loved running tre - mendously, he quit doing it for six years. Four major operations, including heart bypass surgery, didn’t help his optimism, and he feared he might never run more than a few strides again. Yet, after he discovered the Bionic Runner, he’s running again – “Yes, running,” he says, almost in disbelief. Discovering distance Bill, now 65, lives in Los Angeles, and has run all around the area – even on Santa Catalina Island off the coast of his home city. For most of his life, he increased the length of his runs and races, starting with shorter distances in high school, then finding as he got older that he was ac - tually better at longer road races. Bill l eung User s t O r I es During his long life, Bill Leung went from racing in high school to barely being able to jog and having to lie down and recover after just a few sec - onds of running. Even a half hour of walking wasn’t easy. l User s t O r I es
34. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 34 nterestingly, this applies to upper body disability as well as lower body function. It looks like running protective for the function of your body, top to bottom. In a study that looked at runners and their non-runner counterparts over a period of 20 years, it was observed that life capability for runners in their 80s was higher. While age comes for us all, it was notable that initial onset of disability among runners oc - curred 16 years later than non-runners. Even entering their ninth decade of life, runners displayed more capable physical skills than non-runners. As with anything, if you don’t use it you lose it. Senior runners who stopped running experienced a loss of fitness, which is to be expected after ending an exercise pro - gram. Former runners, however, displayed better VO2 max than seniors who had never been runners. While there is a popular assumption that running puts aging athletes at risk for osteoar - thritis of the hips and knees, this assumption i r unning Aw AY From Aging (how running keeps you young) keep y OUN g Running has been proven to extend lifespan by about 3 years, and runners have fewer musculoskeletal disabilities that develop with age than their sedentary counterparts.
16. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 16 User s t O r I es He rates the Bionic Runner some - where between traditional cycling and running as far as cardio effort. “I reckon cycling takes about 50 per - cent of running effort,” he says.“The BR sits somewhere between those two, at 75 percent perhaps.” Even with the Bionic Runner, though, how can anybody even begin to prepare for an impossible event like the 500-kilometer Vol State Race? How do you get ready to run half a million meters? As a leadup I am going to run the Titi Ultra, a 100km road race near KL in Malaysia in March. For Rob, the answer is pretty easy – you get ready for the 500K by run - ning a 100K! In March he plans to run the 100-ki - lometer Titi Ultra in Malaysia as a way to gear up for July’s Vol State. He’ll need the Bionic Runner to get ready for that one, too, as it has now become “an integral part” of his train - ing. Apart from patience, it’s one of his most important assets. He sums it up: “The closest you’ll get to running without the stress.”
24. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 24 As children, we play as a matter of course. Recess is worked into school days, we play pickup basketball, capture the flag, tag (AKA “run around screaming”) or dodgeball, and some of us start to specialize. e develop a love of soccer, and spend more time at practice than on the playground, and go all the way to our school’s cham - pionship game. After that, if we’re very dedicated we continue to play sports into university. After univer - sity, however, the landscape changes rather dramatically. The rate at which adults play sports, compared to their younger coun - terparts, is dramatically lower. Somehow the focus of physical activity moves away from “because it’s fun” and into “because it’s good for me” as we become re - sponsible grownups. It’s a shame. There are so many ways in which we let go of joyful pursuits in the name of work and obligations. Playing, no matter the game, is a joyful experience at any age. Most adults who did play sports when they were younger no longer play any sport at all. Only one in four adults currently play, while three in four played when they were younger. Added to that fact is the significant gender gap among adults: men are twice as likely as women to participate in an organized sport activity. When we’re approaching exercise as virtuous work, we tend to behave differently after the workout. We snack more, looking for some reward for all that sweat - ing. The downside to this response is that many people exercise with improved body composition in mind. If we snack all the calories we’ve burned back and more, Playful Fitness w C h I ldre N
28. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 28 can’t think of much more frustrating than having my heels hurt with every step, and I definitely wouldn’t be very motivated to run in that condition. One strategy for mitigating the pain of plantar fasciitis is to reduce the impact of daily activities. The Bionic Runner just happens to offer a no-im - pact alternative to running, which would allow you to comfortably con - tinue your training regime even in the face of chronic heel pain. In addition to being supremely ir - ritating, plantar fasciitis takes for - ever to heal (see what I did there?), Runner’s Heel, also known as plantar fasciitis , is the absolute worst. Characterized by heel pain with the first steps in the morning or after sitting for awhile, it can ease up with physical activity but usually gets worse again by the end of the day. p l A nt A r F A s C iitis he A lth i
31. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 31 or Doug, who knew the area around his home in southwest Michigan intimately from years of running for training and for fun and fitness, that blow was terrible. “The idea of being stuck forever in the base - ment on an elliptical sounded quite depressing,” he says. Fortunately, the Bionic Runner has gotten him out of that basement and back on the trails and roads he loves to explore. ‘ i was very competitive’ Though Doug didn’t start running until 2001, when he was 34, he took it very seriously. At first, he competed in shorter sprint tri - athlons, but soon enough was bitten by the Ironman bug. He ran some middle distance tri - athlons, did well, and decided to try the 2003 Florida Ironman. By then, he was consumed by triathlon ob - session. “I was very competitive in my triathlon years. I trained with a local group and had a personal coach via the Internet,” he says. Last summer, triathlete Doug Campbell, who’s completed three Ironmans, faced a deeply depressing future. His doctor told him to “give up running.” f
8. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 8 All Bioni C r unners C ome st A n DA r D with The Patented 60:40 swing stance phase timing, so you get a High Intensity workout. Long stride technology . A frame built to last - we combine the technologies of forging, extrusion, and CNC machining to deliver to you a superb and reliable frame. The aluminium is 6061 that is both T4 and T6 heat treated for increased strength and rigidity. Disc Brakes front and rear. Spectacular stirrups. The stirrup is the heart of the BR technology chain. It combines with the pedal crank and the roller track on the frame to create a run like workout that is unique to the BR. 100% forged in one piece.6061 Aluminium that is aircraft grade. Two heat treatment pro - cesses to double the strength. Anodised. Precision CNC machined Unique Roller System, made from a special grade of in - dustrial strength Delrin. Precision CNC machined. The axle uses a CROMO steel, that is heat treated and CNC. Dual bearings in each wheel capable of carrying a load of 240 kg per bearing, so you can expect a long life Alloy handle bars fitted with ergonomic grips and bar ends. The bar ends are special handles that allow you to change your grip to attack hills better. Custom made Ergonomic Running Pedals Maximum user capacity of 100kg. m o D el Comp A rison A NNOUNC eme N ts BI on I c runn E r January 2018 8
15. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 15 Although he is the first to admit he suffers from his share of traditional running injuries, it was an injury to his shoulder that prevented him from running. You might think a shoulder injury wouldn’t keep you from running, but you’d be wrong. Rob needed three surgeries in 18 months and couldn’t run during that time. Recovering from those operations, he discovered some limits to the pa - tience running had taught him. “I used an elliptical in the gym, but two hour sessions on that were mind numbing,” he says. Indoor training was particularly galling to a man who lives on Austra - lia’s beautiful west coast and has “a spectacular coastline” to run along. Seeking some sort of outdoor alter - native to running, he considered an Elliptigo, but ended up trying a Bionic Runner after a recommendation from ultrarunner Mick Thwaites, for whom he crewed at the 2016 Badwater event in Death Valley. “He suggested the BR as a way to get back from the injuries I had,” Rob says. h ow to prepare for a 500K? Training on the Bionic Runner, Rob found, didn’t stress his shoulder too much. And as his shoulder has im - proved, he’s incorporated the Bionic Runner into his regime as a way to recover from long runs and to add cardio training without more stress on his legs. “I typically have one or two ses - sions a week,” he explains. “One long steady B-run of around two hours for recovery from running, and then one session of intervals.” His interval training is carefully crafted to get him ready for lengthy endurance events. “The interval sessions include 10 x 1 minute efforts, or 8 x 2 minutes. Some sessions are to target heart rate,” Rob explains. His BR sessions extend up to 40 kilometers. “I was surprised at how it worked my quads and core,” he says. “If I finish in the top half of the field it has been a good result.”
36. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 36 eyond lowering blood pres - sure, improv - ing insulin sensitivity, reducing body fat, and im - proving cardio - vascular health, running has an emotional and social impact that must not be overlooked. It’s well known that the business of being an adult can eat up a lot of time, rendering us social - ly isolated. Groups like meetup.com and various social clubs are great ways to connect with other humans, and the sport of running is a global movement which connects people to each other as well as a larger social identity like no other. Many people start running by way of a running group, or club. By sur - rounding themselves with like-mind - ed runners, they are making use of a social support system to encourage healthy habit development. For peo - ple who have completed university, it may become more difficult to forge new friendships. After our 20s, it can become difficult to maintain our ex - isting social connections, let alone build new ones. Using constructs like a running club to facilitate social contact is one great way to avoid the isolating effects of a busy work life or starting a family. Recreational runners can be intensely serious about their sport of choice, becoming absorbed in its culture, gear, and research. Even if runners primarily train solo, the events that we engage in to test our capacity (marathons, triathlons, b Social connection S for runner S — finding your tribe s OCIA l There are a million health reasons for maintaining a daily or weekly running habit
1. BIONIC RUNNER #3 i s s u e / january 2018 www.run4.com Overtraining vs Overreaching an D r ec O very What is The Minimum Effective Dose for Distance Training? Running Away From Aging Playful f itness Plantar Fasciitis HGH After Injuries Bionic Runner Profile: Bill l eung rOB D O nkersl OO t D IG est I ve He A lt H Doug Campbell
20. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 20 When it comes to preparing for a marathon, there are several approaches that are generally effective and well-received. aware of running’s effect on all-cause mortality, heart disease, and type II diabetes. The life-extending effect of running is dose-dependent; meaning the more active you are the longer you’ll live (to a point). The more fre - quently we train, either with weights or for endurance, the healthier we feel. So if more is good, even more should be better. Marathon training should turn us into superhumans! Not so fast. There are a few chal - lenges to address with a high-mileage approach. Some of those challenges are purely practical: even the most avid runners, unless they are pro - fessional athletes, have lives outside of running. No matter how focused t is always wise to build a base of fit - ness before moving into any kind of seri - ous distance training plan, and building mileage over a peri - od of 12-20 or more weeks reduces risk of running-related injury or exhaustion. Those who have already developed a founda - tion of strength and endurance can accelerate training in - tensity with a bit more freedom. Runners know that their sport of choice feels great, and are likely i What is the Minimum Effective Dose for Distance Training? t r AININ g
11. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 11 good and energetic, they did more intense work. This condition is clearly one that benefits from some com - mon-sense rest and recovery before it proceeds into a state that requires medical intervention. It appears that a healthy dose of self-awareness, and/or an attentive coach, are the most effective preven - tion strategies for avoiding overtrain - ing. Balancing the athlete’s drive to achieve with the need for rest may be easier if it’s made clear that not resting can have disastrous conse - quences. Taking two weeks to reduce training volume or rest completely, to recover from overreaching, is cer - tainly preferable to taking months off while your endocrine system figures out how to function normally again. The body is a wise machine, and if you’ve moved beyond your capacity for work, it will keep you updated on when you need to stop by making you sad, sick, sleepless, and weak. Keep an eye on your performance, and rather than introducing more sprint intervals when your race times start to lag, maybe consider some in - tensive rest. You’ll be able to return to your previous training load, and may even find you’ve made progress in the interim, once you give your body a chance to recover. Overall, running should bring you joy. Once you find the joy is reduced, or that everything just seems terrible, that could indicate a mood change. The need for rest doesn’t mean that you should spend weeks lolling about on the couch, however. There is evidence that athletes can main - tain intensive training loads as long as they take one day off per week. In the absence of a day off, risk of overtraining syndrome increases af - ter about 3 weeks of heavy training. Interestingly, other risk factors for overtraining syndrome include mo - notony of activity. If your preferred sport is very boring or repetitive, you may find yourself reaching the over - training threshold more quickly. A final word: while paying attention to your emotional state or physical fatigue may seem like a soft-touch approach, it’s worth taking a look at how you feel day to day. While dis - tance running is a challenging sport and requires a significant degree of mental toughness, sometimes the toughest move is to ease off and al - low your body to recover. Interestingly, other risk factors for overtraining syndrome include monotony of activity.
6. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 6 here’s nothing worse than hav - ing to sprint 5k of your marathon to make it to the first pit stop. More than 30% of respondents who participat - ed in the Seaside Marathon expe - rienced bowel urgency during or after the run. It’s a frustrating lesson to learn the hard way, and hopefully reading this will allow you to prepare more effec - tively. In addition to training for en - durance, runners who don’t want to be troubled by GI upset on race day must also practice their fueling strat - egy. While it may seem silly to have practice snacks, figuring out how your digestive system responds to different foods can be a bit of a trial and error process. Keep in mind that the adrenaline of race day can result in different digestive outcomes. Runner’s diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose bowel movements during or immediately after a run. It happens most commonly among long-distance runners. While the cause isn’t exactly known, some the - ories posit that the jostling of organs, changes in intestinal hormone secre - tion, and pre-race anxiety are con - tributing factors. New runners are most at risk for exercise-associated GI distress, and lower intestinal dis - tress is noted more frequently among female runners than male runners. Pre-race nutrition (the day before and the day of) are worth practicing as well. While experimenting with various mid-effort gels and sports beverages is important so you’re not putting something new into your system at a critical moment, it’s also important to dial in hydration and fu - eling strategies before the day. Strategies for avoiding runner’s di - arrhea, according to The Mayo Clinic: t Race Prep: Why You Need Practice Meals As Well As Practice Runs f OO d Everyone knows that to be a competitive runner, or even a casual runner who occasionally competes, you’ve got to put in the hours. Practice is the key, and training takes time and repetition. Some runners find themselves in trouble on race day, however, when they discover that their pre-race meal isn’t sitting quite right.
14. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 14 events he prefers. “Running teaches you patience,” he says. “More and faster isn’t necessar - ily better.” Part of his patient philosophy is that Rob is only really competitive against himself. “If I finish in the top half of the field it has been a good result,” he says. Obviously, anyone running hun - dreds of kilometers needs patience, or at least endurance. But patience, though essential, isn’t always enough, as Rob found during the final 10 kilo - meters of the 240-kilometer “Coast to Kosci” run in 2015. As he neared the summit of Mt. Kosciuszko, the tallest mountain in Australia, having already run more than 200 kilometers and climbed six thousand feet, he struggled to run in a straight line. “I needed a crew member on either side of me to make sure I didn’t fall off the mountain,” he says. o utdoor patience vs. indoor patience You might think the likeliest injury to a person who runs hundreds of kilome - ters at a time would be to his knees, his feet, or some other weight-bear - ing part of his body. But just as Rob doesn’t do midlife crisis like oth - er people, he didn’t get injured quite like other runners. User s t O r I es h e’s getting ready for a 500-kilo - meter event, a longer run than most people can even imag - ine. And the Bi - onic Runner is helping to get him across that distant finish line. ‘ r unning teaches you patience’ Though you might think him in a hur - ry, going from zero to 500 kilometers in just a decade, Rob has a philosoph - ical attitude towards running. That at - titude is vital to survive the extreme
19. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 19 ain while training will re - duce your strength, in - crease perceived effort, and can distract you from the task at hand. Especial - ly if running represents a big piece of your mental health and wellbeing, losing access to that outlet can have a larger than an - ticipated cost. If the injury is to a lower extremity, it can feel like there’s no op - tion to get your endorphin hit, and suddenly becoming sedentary after being extremely active is unpleasant to say the least. It’s possible to maintain your fitness level, if not the specific strength in an injured area, by using the rest of your body to good purpose. Legs not 100%? Try a hand cycle, or an intense upper body weights workout. You’ll get your sweat on, and strengthen some muscles that have perhaps been neglected for a while. Beyond feel - ing more capable (and likely sore the next day), you’ll be altering your hormonal profile to one that favours healing as well. When we exercise, particularly when we perform eccentric movements with weights, our bodies pro - duce growth hGH, or Human Growth Hormone, and testosterone. While the levels of production decline as we age, the exercise effect still remains. Even in older adults, we can influence our hGH levels by resistance training. Produced by the pituitary gland, growth hor - mone is regulated by the hypothalamus. The levels of circulating growth hormone in the body are heavily influenced by sleep, body fat levels, exercise, gender, and diet, and it is released in pulses which fluctuate significantly throughout the day. There have been many studies performed using growth hormone exogenously (ie by injection); this one found no difference in muscle mass gain between elderly male subjects who received hGH injections and completed a 12 week hypertrophy program and in subjects who completed the lifting pro - gram but did not receive injections. It would appear that the more intense the exercise, the more intense the pulse of growth hormone. Free weights used for multi-joint movements (like squats) appear to cause a greater growth hormone release than, say, a leg press machine. Growth hormone sounds like a bit of a magical sub - stance, with anabolic (muscle building), and lipolytic (fat reducing) properties. GH has known effects on collagen and bone turnover, and it has been suggested that its large-dose administration may strengthen connective tissue, paralleling increase in strength brought about by exercise and decreasing risk of injury to these tissues. Not only that, but subjects receiving supplemental hGH injections report side effects such as improved skin tone, eyesight and recovery time from injury. So why aren’t we all doping up with hGH all the time? It sounds great! Well, as with anything that sounds too good to be true, there are side effects. Joint pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, water retention, and abnormal heart rhythm are reported in studies using GH administration, some - times leading subjects to withdraw. Exogenous growth hormone also increases fasting blood glucose and insu - lin levels. It’s not all sunshine and roses. The growth hormone produced by our bodies when we exercise, however, doesn’t have these pesky side effects. Training sessions that are high volume (lots of repetitions), moderate to high in intensity (hard work), using short rest intervals and stressing a large muscle mass, tend to produce the greatest acute hormonal el - evations (e.g. testosterone, GH and the catabolic hor - mone cortisol) compared with low-volume, high-inten - sity protocols using long rest intervals. If you are suffering an acute, specific injury, like an ACL tear or a stress fracture in your foot, you may see faster recovery and certainly better frame of mind if you can work in some intense eccentric loading work us - ing your healthy limbs. The circulating growth hormone produced by working (safely) at high intensity will go a long way to speeding your recovery and relieving the stress that goes along with being sidelined. p Growth hormone sounds like a bit of a magical substance, with anabolic (muscle building), and lipolytic (fat reducing) properties.
7. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 7 ● At least one day before run - ning, limit or avoid high-fiber and gas-producing foods, such as beans, bran, fruit and salad. If you run every day, experiment to find a tolerable level of fiber. Other - wise, simply eat those foods after you run. ● At least one day before running, limit or avoid sweeteners called sugar alcohols (isomalt, sorbitol, others) — most often found in sugar-free candies, gum and ice cream. ● For three to six hours before run - ning, limit or avoid caffeine and high-fat foods. ● For at least two hours before run - ning, don’t eat anything at all. ● Before, during and after running, drink plenty of fluids. Dehydration can lead to diarrhea. Avoid warm liquids, however, which can speed food through the digestive tract. ● While running, use caution with energy gels and energy bars. In some people, these products can contribute to diarrhea. And espe - cially avoid introducing a new gel or bar on race day. ● If you’re lactose intolerant, switch to lactose-reduced or lactose-free milk and milk products. ● Avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflamma - tory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibu - profen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen (Aleve). Both have been shown to increase the incidence of gastrointestinal complaints. The Mayo clinic’s advice to avoid certain foods to prevent GI prob - lems on race day is borne out by athletes who have had suc - cess implementing a short- term low-FODMAP diet (FODMAPS stands for Fer - mentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosac - charides and Polyols). For at least one athlete specified in one very small cohort study, avoiding FODMAPs was an effective strategy for keeping their digestion on point during athletic efforts. At least one oth - er study supports this result. This dietary approach, characterized by avoiding foods named in its acronym such as those which contain fructose (fruits, honey, HFCS), lactose (dairy), fructans (wheat, onion, garlic), ga - lactans (beans, lentils, legumes), and polyols (sweeteners like sorbitol, xy - litol, maltitol, as well as stone fruits like avocado, cherries, nectarines, peaches, and plums). While a low-FODMAP diet is usu - ally recommended for patients suf - fering from IBS, the limited research conducted to date on athletes shows promise. In fact, the ways in which exercise-induced diarrhea and GI distress present look an awful lot like IBS. As such, the symptoms respond well to the prescribed diet. Since di - gestion is such a personal process, the best way to map out a race-day nutrition strategy is to test out vari - ous approaches as you train for the big event. By doing a dress rehearsal of pre-race meals, and establishing a good hydration profile in the week before a maximal effort, you max - imise your chances of a happy out - come. At least two hours before running, don’t eat anything at all.
21. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 21 we are on training as much as possi - ble, there are still only 24 hours in a day. Training 6 or 7 days a week on top of, say, working or parenting full time can represent a significant drain on personal and physical resources. Recovering from that much training takes time as well, and is one of the first places that novice runners cut corners. Ramping up a training pro - gram with inadequate sleep or re - covery time is a recipe for injury and overreaching. On the other end, training volume is important to preventing injury on race day. Runners whose weekly mileage is less than 30km/week see more injuries during marathons than runners whose mileage is 30-60km/ week or more. For those looking to maximise performance, it looks like getting miles under your belt is the way to a faster marathon, with mara - thoners who complete in 2.5-3 hours having logged both more distance per training session and more fre - quent sessions. So there’s a strong argument for maximising training vol - ume, as long as you can do it safely and with adequate recovery and nu - tritional support. When it comes to running a 24- hour race, the best predictor of race performance surprisingly has little to do with body composition or training volume. The metric which correlates with excellent performance most strongly is a fast personal best mara - thon running time. If you look at the previous paragraph, however, it looks like a fast personal best marathon time is directly related to training volume, so this is an argument that could go around in circles indefinitely. To come back to an earlier point, what are we to do when we just don’t have time to log the necessary miles to improve our endurance? It looks like there may be a shortcut available, which saves a ton of time and yields similar results in terms of strength and endurance development. In a cy - cling trial, subjects who did 4-6 Win - gate tests (30 seconds all-out effort followed by 4.5 minutes of recovery), 3 days per week, exhibited similar adaptations as the group who cycled for 40-60 minutes, 5 days per week. With a vastly reduced time commit - ment, subjects were able to make similar gains. There may be hope here for time-strapped recreational runners. In another study, two groups pre - pared for a marathon with different training loads. It would have been in - teresting to see a direct comparison between steady-state training at 60- 75% maximal heart rate and a train - ing plan consisting of more interval work peppered in between distance runs. In this case, however, both groups trained in the traditional fash - ion for a distance running event, but one group did 20% less work. Both groups performed similarly in the final marathon, indicating that the “more is better” adage has its limits. Further research into the minimum training load required to adequately prepare for a marathon is certainly needed, but in the meantime HIIT and HIFT (High Intensity Functional Training - ie Crossfit) enthusiasts are looking for alternate training meth - odologies. It will be fascinating to see what bubbles to the surface of the literature in coming years. In the meantime, take a look at your training program. If you’re feeling pressed for time, it might be worth reducing your distance training load a bit, adding in some sprint intervals, and resting a little more. The out - come might just be the same. Marathon training should turn us into superhumans!
10. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 10 e’ve all had the experience of being just so tired the day af - ter a long run or poor sleep, and lac - ing up anyway. One of the admirable traits of distance runners is their capacity to push through fa - tigue and continue on for miles and miles. Younger athletes in particular may pride themselves on their grit and determination, which are indeed traits worthy of praise. After a certain degree of fatigue, however, ignoring the body’s signals can result in a state called overreaching. Overreaching is a precursor state to overtraining, in that it can be resolved with a few days to two weeks of rest, and is in fact a part of the strength and en - durance development cycle. We extend past our capabilities, force a cardiovascular or muscular adapta - tion, spend some time recovering, and come back stronger and faster. Failing to take adequate rest once in a state of overreach can lead to be - coming overtrained or “burnt out”. Overtraining takes longer to recover from. In an overtrained athlete, an intense work cycle with inadequate rest can cause problems in multi - ple body systems as well as mood changes. Overtraining can affect the neurological, endocrine, and immune systems, almost always resulting in sleep disturbances. One of the first signs to be mind - ful of is an unexplained reduction in athletic performance, coupled with disturbed mood. If, even after weeks or months of recovery time, athletic performance still hasn’t returned to normal, it’s time to see a medical pro - fessional (if not before). Overtraining can only really be diagnosed after a significant rest period, however, and only after any other possible cause for underperformance has been elim - inated. Overtraining is a term that has had its meaning diluted in recent years, and most of the time when people say overtrained what they mean is overreaching . Because athletes can be very sin - gle-minded in their pursuit of athletic excellence, an unexplained decrease in performance is often met not with rest but with increased training loads. If you’re getting slower, or running out of energy more quickly, it must be because you’re losing fitness, right? And the solution for losing fitness is to do more exercise, right? This tendency can quickly transform an easily-resolved state of overreach into a longer recovery process from overtraining. It’s very challenging to find solid literature on overtraining syndrome prevention strategies, as it would be unethical to induce a state of over - training on study subjects. In one group of collegiate swimmers, how - ever, the incidence of overtraining diagnoses dropped from 10% to 0%. What did they change? They simply adjusted the training schedule based on athlete responses to a mood sur - vey. When athlete mood was low or stress was high, they eased off the training. When athletes were feeling w o vertraining vs o verreaching and r ecovery Fatigue is certainly a common experience for athletes. he A lth
35. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 35 is unsupported. Run on! Your knees and hips are going to be just fine. Aging runners also go to the doctor less often. It looks like running is also neuroprotective, allowing athletes and recreational runners to retain more cognitive function into their advanced years. Mild cognitive im - pairment is a precursor to dementia. Physically active seniors appear to have a 30% lower incidence of cog - nitive impairment. The benefits of engaging in moderate intensity exercise in subjects at risk for Alzheimer’s persist - ed even 6 and 12 months after one study was com - pleted. It’s clear that remaining active al - lows us to remain independent lon - ger into old age. Is it possible run - ning keeps us young in other ways? All that running around is benefiting you at a fundamental, cellular level. It seems as though the mitochondria in skeletal muscle have a great deal to do with age-related loss of function. Exercising gets these mitochondria all fired up, which mitigates age-re - lated insulin resistance and fat ac - cumulation within the muscle. Even moderate running and weight train - ing improves mitochondrial function in elderly men by up to 50%. This raises the question: are age-relat - ed mitochondrial defects a result of normal aging? Or are they entirely or partially due to lifestyle factors oth - er than aging? Does being sedentary mess up our mitochondria, or does aging make us sedentary? The secret could be in your telo - meres. Exercise science professor Larry Tucker found adults with high physical activity have telomeres with a biological aging advantage of nine years over those who are sedentary, and a seven-year advantage over those who are moderately active. Highly active in this case was catego - rized as 30-40 minutes of jogging, 5 days a week. The precise mechanism by which exercise protects telomeres isn’t yet known. It may have some - thing to do with inflammation, which exercise has been known to supress. When it comes to comparing types of exercise, it may be wisest to di - versify your training program as you age. Running alone may not be able to positively influence age-related changes in muscle mass. While old - er athletes are certainly capable of the adaptations required for endur - ance running, this work may not be sufficient to counteract the inevita - ble muscle loss that comes with the passage of time. In studies on older runners, participants were shown to have similar strength and body mass as their untrained counterparts. While their cardiovascular endurance was no doubt much superior, this raises a concern about maintaining functional strength as we age. No matter how you slice it, exer - cise of any kind is better than sitting around all day. And moderate to high intensity exercise seems to be the ticket to a sharper mind well into ad - vanced age. As we lose muscle past age 40, it’s wise to incorporate signif - icant muscle-building work into your routine, if for no other reason than to preserve muscle mass and allow you to run for longer to reap all those de - licious benefits. As we lose muscle past age 40, it’s wise to incorporate significant muscle-building work into your routine.
25. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 25 it defeats some of the purpose of the activity and then we’re having even less fun. When the activity is pre - sented as fun, at least in this study, that snacking reflex is absent be - cause the payoff is the activity. The perceived effort is also rated lower when even a challenging activity is presented as recreational instead of dutiful. Why not seek out free playful movement? Ultimate Frisbee leagues have die-hard followings because, in part, adults are hungry for play. The sense of belonging that comes with being on a team is a valuable human experience, and there’s even some evidence that running in solitude in - hibits the development of new neu - rons normally associated with exer - cise. At least in rats. Playing, in its most basic form, can be categorized as any game, with or without rules, with or without other players, as long as it take place in a playful context, combined with mod - erate to vigorous physical activity. By the time we reach 6-10 years old, we have already reached our peak amount of playing, with 10 year olds only spending 13% of their outdoor time in vigorous playful movement. The video game industry has tried to cash in on this, with devices such as the Wii to promote physical activity within a game. Unfortunately, players lose interest after about a week of consistent play. Nothing compares to getting outside and running around! Adults engage in open-ended play like roughhousing, climbing, chas - ing even less frequently than they do organized sports, and this lack of recreational movement could be ad - versely affecting hearts and brains worldwide. Research into playing is usually conducted in the context of childhood cognitive and physical de - velopment, but just because we are no longer children does not mean our need for play disappears. As we age, play continues to be a powerful so - cial tool and serves as a mechanism for not only encouraging physical activity but also preserving the func - tional capabilities we lose when we become sedentary. Beyond keeping aging bodies healthy, playing around (especially imaginatively) keeps minds sharp as well. It follows that if an ac - tivity is enjoyable both for body and brain, we’re more likely to stick to it. In addition to preserving mobility and agility for older folks, the benefits for competitive athletes come from an unexpected direction: burnout is a real phenomenon that could perhaps be mitigated by a solid dose of playful movement. From the literature on children’s academic development as it relates to physical activity, we have learned that there is a dose-response rela - tionship. That is to say, the more vig - orous the activity, and the broader the range of physical skills engaged, the greater the cognitive benefit. In the Trois-Rivieres Project in Canada, children were given an extra 5 hours of outdoor play time per week, and exhibited significantly better aca - demic performance than the control group. In adults, there is a dearth of research on the topic of play, let alone on play and cognition, but there is a great deal of work being done around physical exercise and mental function. Adults who exercise have better cognitive function than adults who are sedentary. Playful personality traits tend to overlap with other traits such as ex - traversion and emotional stability, although of course introverts can be playful as well... in studies on hu - man attraction, playfulness is one of the most appealing traits that peo - ple look for in a partner. Playing can make you smarter, happier, and... sexier, it would seem. What’s not to love? Playing, in its most basic form, can be categorized as any game, with or without rules, with or without other players.
3. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 3 What is it? Finally an outdoor running trainer that gives you the same workout as running but without the pounding. Why use one? To arrive at events fast, fit AND unin - jured. When should you use one? When you are building volume, peak - ing, or want a safe interval or fartlek tool. It will enable you to manage the excessive training loads, and avoid impact and overextension injuries. How does it help prevent injury? The Bionic Mechanism transfers the passive ground reaction forces into active ground reaction forces. Passive GRF are the point at which impact injuries occur. By increasing active GRF you build running strength. The Bionic also protect you from extention inju - ries. How will it help you to get faster? Intervals and fartlek are known to increase speed, but can often lead to impact related or over extention inju - ries. Now you can perform these in a safe environment. The resistance train - ing will build foundation leg strength. By doing Bricks, you can double your training distance. How it is different from an elliptical or a bike? Ellipticals and bikes don’t feel like running, and they don’t get your cardio into the same zones. The Bionic Runner has a gait similar to running with a high kickup and the foot landing under your body. It will also give you a workout every bit as tough as running. What has changed to enable a new solution? For years of R&D, and 1000’s of hours of testing by runners in 32 countries around the world. “ I was recovering from a torn plantar fascia and subsequent stress fracture of metatarsal. I could only manage to get 12 runs in before the Ber - lin marathon, and the rest of my training was done on the Bionic Runner. I can honestly say that it got me over the line. I ran 3.51 which is 3 min faster than my NY time last year after having trained all year for that race. Thanks.” Salliann Powell , Brisbane “ I have stayed completely injury-free despite an estimated 12,000,000 steps in 8,000 miles.’ Dr Tom Anthony, New York “ After two months of commuting to work I decreased my time in the Prague 10 km Grand Prix night event from 38:21 to 36:24, finishing 79th place out of 5542 runners. I don’t think you need better evidence, that the Bionic runner realy does it’s job well :-) ” Roman Hermanek, Czech Republic Check it out now www.run4. C om
29. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 29 but luckily the vast majority of cas - es are treated to complete resolu - tion within two years. It is estimated that 1 in 10 people will develop PF in their lifetime, and with such high numbers of afflicted individuals you’d think we’d have a clear picture of its causes and treatments. Unfortunate - ly, the answers are not exactly cut and dried yet. While PF is strongly correlated to BMI in a non-athletic population, it doesn’t seem to have much to do with body composition when it comes to runners. Risk fac - tors may include excessive pronation, and tightness of the achilles tendon is found in almost 80% of cases. The sooner you catch the early stag - es of plantar fasciitis, the easier and briefer the treatment is. Treatments range from taking anti-inflammato - ry painkillers, stretching the plantar fascia, using orthotics, to more ag - gressive measures like corticosteroid injections and extracorporeal shock wave therapy, platelet-rich plasma injection and pulsed radiofrequency electromagnetic field therapy. If none of these treatments are effective af - ter a prolonged period, then surgery might be the final option. Corticosteroid injection has been shown to significantly reduce plan - tar fascia thickness as early as two weeks and one month following treatment. Happily, complications of steroid injection are not common. There is substantially growing enthu - siasm for the use of growth factor containing harvested blood/platelet concentrate which, unlike steroids, can stimulate the reparative process. New tudies have revealed that local injection of PRP (platelet rich plasma) provides significant relief of pain and improvement of function, and the results seems to be comparable, and sometimes superior to local steroid injection. Available data are limited by the quality and size of the studies, as well as length of follow-up. More re - search needs to be done before this treatment becomes routine. As a preventative, or to treat at home if you suspect you may be developing PF, some basic stretch - ing is a risk-free manoeuvre that may save you time and energy down the road. By stretching the calf, either three minutes at a time, three times a day, or five 20-s intervals, twice dai - ly, you can ease tension on both the achilles tendon as well as the plantar fascia. It’s cold comfort, but 80% of cas - es of PF resolve regardless of treat - ment within a year. Failing all else, it’s possible to just wait it out. Al - though certainly not optimal, as PF can limit mobility just by being a source of irritation and pain, it does indicate that plantar fasciitis is a transient ailment. Athletes afflicted with Runner’s Heel do need to modify their train - ing loads, or at least their running loads. There is some indication that the positioning of the rear foot while running has something to do with the development of PF, but more re - search needs to be conducted in this area to be sure. Although there are no studies to back up this assertion, the preva - lence of studies examining treatment of PF via anti-inflammatory drugs leads me to wonder if there’s any re - lief to be had by eliminating inflam - matory foods from the diet. Research in this direction would be fascinating to read, but studies involving dietary interventions are notoriously difficult to execute with any kind of precision. When study subjects are asked to self-report food intake, they tend to be terribly inaccurate. If you’re looking to avoid PF, try a lower-impact approach to endurance work, stretch those achilles daily, and pay attention to nagging pain. Minor pain today can become major pain tomorrow. By stretching the calf, you can ease tension on both the achilles tendon as well as the plantar fascia.
17. January 2018 BIONIC RUNNER 17 Q & A with Rob Donkersloot What’s your favourite place to train? I have a series of three lakes one kilometre from home in Perth, Western Australia, the total distance on the path around all three is 34km, just perfect for B-running. Any nutrition suggestions? Not so much for B-running, but for running I swear by S-Caps for sodium intake. These are magic. Why did you start Bionic Running? I was chatting to Mick Thwaites while I was at Bad - water crewing for him in 2016; he suggested the BR as a way to get back from the injuries I had. Do you have any injuries? I have ongoing shoulder issues that made running difficult for an extended period. B-running didn’t cause the same issues. Any major goals or races coming up? I am running the Last Annual Vol State Road Race, 500km through Tennessee in July 2016. As a leadup I am going to run the Titi Ultra, a 100km road race near KL in Malaysia in March. What are your favourite things about Bionic Running? I like the way you stand up, so it mimics what you experience sensorially in running. I dislike cycling as cross training Do you have a favourite training routine with the Bionic Runner? I do interval sessions on the BR, but like my running training, I couldn’t call intervals my favourite... they work for me though. Has it changed the way you train? Yes, it has reduced the volume of kilometres I run by ~ 20 percent. That has got to be better for my body. What are the three best things you like about the Bionic Runner? High stance A better workout that requires more effort than on the bike If I am carrying leg injuries while running, I wont feel them while brunning What would you do if you couldn’t use a Bionic Runner any more? Run more, with subsequent increased risk of injury. What would you say to someone considering buying a Bionic Runner? Look at what Mick Twaites has achieved... the BR has been a big part of his achievements as one of the world’s top ultra runners. Tell us something that no one would know about you. I would like to do something seriously long on the BR. Maybe do the route of the Coast to Kosciuszko 240km race that I have run a few times. If you were to define Bionic Running in a word what would it be? Ingenious Bonus Question: Is there a question you’d like to answer for us about Bionic Runner? What’s your top tip for people new to the Bionic Runner? Flat tyres suck big time, fill your tyres with Slime Tube Sealant or similar.
37. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 37 24-hour races, etc.) are by their very nature social. Although not a team sport, and although some classify run - ning as “solitary”, there’s more com - munity there than you might realize. Runners often benefit from adopt - ing a social identity around their ath - letic endeavors. Becoming a runner gives feelings of pride and accom - plishment, as well as improved mood and decreased anxiety, increased so - cial interactions and opportunities, and greater self-efficacy and esteem. The extraordinary and authentic ex - periences at long distance running events is a dominant theme, incor - porating the conflicting emotions of failure and glory and the importance of travel within the long distance run - ning social world. Running, for some, has become a third place. The idea of “third place” was popularized by Star - bucks, which positioned itself partly as a gathering place that is neither home nor work. As a point of contact that allows for relaxed social interac - tion without anyone having to host an event, running does the job ex - traordinarily well. Within a third place there is no class structure - a third place provides an opportunity for all to interact apart without reference to social roles or class. Third places allow social circles to be expanded, rather than restricted, by emphasising qual - ities that are not based on such ex - clusive criteria as class or income, but on more inclusive measures. Class is irrelevant – long distance running is a common bond between individuals from contrasting social backgrounds. Running serves an important so - cial purpose. When participants get together with their running compan - ions on the weekend for long runs, this becomes their opportunity to spend time with friends, according to one study. When races are locat - ed far from a runner’s home, the race becomes an excuse for the runner to take a trip with their family. Inter - estingly enough, despite advances in technology and the push to use the Internet to promote and attract new participants, runners still prefer the standard word of mouth referrals to media sources when finding out about new races. Although the presence of a friend (or stranger) doesn’t seem to have an impact on athletic performance, it may have an important impact on other aspects of training. For exam - ple, if you know you’ve scheduled your training runs with a friend, you’re less likely to fail to show up. Another important emotional aspect of running appears during times of emotional distress, as in the death of a loved one. Some runners use exer - cise as a sort of anaesthetic, running to escape the discomfort of daily life for an hour or two. If this escape is augmented by a feeling of belonging to a movement larger than oneself, so much the better. The social value of running events extends beyond just benefiting indi - viduals. Entire cities experience im - proved quality of life and economy after hosting major running events. The Cincinnati Flying Pig Marathon, for example, has had a positive effect on the city’s social assets. It’s not necessary to run in a group to reap the social benefits of being a runner, of course. Events and social media groups allow for ample contact which promotes well being, and not every training run must be performed with a crowd. Running exclusively in isolation, however, may reduce some of the positive health outcomes asso - ciated with physical exercise. In rats, at least, totally secluded running reduced some of the positive adaptations we usually see with aerobic exercise. The rats who ran alone had higher levels of stress hormone, and displayed lower rates of new neuron development. For maximum positive benefit, however, consider running socially from time to time, and definitely run in the outdoors whenever possible. Exercising in nature is proven to be almost magical in its capacity for pro - moting mental and physical health and wellbeing.
32. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 32 Running and cycling were great ways to get to know his corner of Michigan, down near the Indiana border. “Since I ran and rode so many hours while training, I know every hill, valley and pavement crack for 25 miles in any direction!” Doug says. Training in and around the rolling hills of his home region, however beautiful and enjoyable it was, didn’t always prepare him perfectly for the rigors of some Ironman courses, and he needed that competitive spirit to complete the difficult races. “My hardest run would no doubt be the marathon portion of Ironman USA in Lake Placid, New York,” he says.“It is impossible to train for cy - cling in the mountains in the Midwest and the Adirondack mountains in up - state New York tested me to the max.” Cycling over those mountains near - ly ruined his legs before the running portion of the race even began. “I remember getting off my bike and my legs were as stiff as tree trunks,” Doug says.“I could barely move! After waddling through the transition tent I was somehow able to make my way out to the run course.” Though that “waddling” didn’t bode well for the upcoming run, Doug was able to complete the first loop of the marathon in just under two hours, keeping to his desired pace. “Unfortunately I blew up on the second loop,” he says. Despite hav - ing to walk some sections of the second loop, he held on to complete the race. “I was thrilled to finish my second Ironman on the iconic speed skating rink made famous by Eric Heiden in the 1980 Olympics.” All in the family Doug’s competitiveness didn’t just show up to carry him across the distant finish line during those long, heartbreaking races, though. And sometimes that stubbornness got him into trouble. “A cautionary word of advice for anyone over age 40: do not, under any circumstances, challenge your teenage daughter to sprint race to the next pole while out for a short run,” he explains.“I lost the race and tore the meniscus for a second time in my right knee.” This tragicomic moment was part of a pattern of injury that has plagued Doug now for a decade. “I’ve had three knee scopes and a ruptured Achilles tendon,” he says.“As of last August, I was instructed by my orthopedic surgeon to give up run - ning.” Though he’d retired from long-dis - tance triathlons after completing the 2006 Coeur d’Alene Ironman in 11 hours and 11 minutes, Doug still en - joyed running two or three times a week to keep fit. And so his doctor’s orders discouraged and depressed him. “I can no longer take the pounding in my knees and, unfortunately, I’m a probable candidate for a knee re - placement sometime in the (hopeful - ly distant) future,” he says. ‘ i t’s opened up the outdoors’ Doug was so desperate for a solu - tion that he did only “a cursory on - line search” before buying his Bionic Runner, which he describes as a “life - saver.” “I gravitated towards the ‘running’ geometry of the BR,” he explains.“It just seemed like a perfect compro - mise for what I was looking for.” He’d started to forget those hills, valleys and pavement cracks he knew so intimately from years of training, but the Bionic Runner gave him a chance to renew his acquaintance with them. “It’s opened up the outdoors for me in ways I hadn’t considered,” Doug says.“Reconnecting with old training routes has been a pleasant surprise.” He likens the experience more to running than cycling, particularly be - cause of the slower speeds, though now he attracts much more attention than he ever did as a runner – “some strange looks but mostly smiles and a few thumbs up.” In some ways, the Bionic Runner is a sort of time machine for Doug, tak - ing him back to routes and feelings he was sure he’d left in the past. “I have a 14 mile loop that I used to run that I now regularly cover on the BR. It’s really been a fantastic discov - ery,” he says. And it’s a time machine for his mus - cles, too. “At the end of a BR session I’m tired in the way I remember from years ago yet I physically feel great,” he says. No word yet on whether he’s gone far enough back in time to challenge his daughter to another race. User s t O r I es
9. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 9 pr edator The Predator is the new benchmark in cross training. It takes the patented Bionic Running technology we all love in the Gen2, and combines it with comfort and superior drive train. The high volume air tires combine with improved geometry to give a ride that is smooth and responsive. The Nuvinci IVT means you have the latest in leading edge gear systems. It changes flawlessly on any terrain, including hills, and because there is an infinite amount of gears within it’s range, you can always dial in the exact resistance and cadence you want. If you can afford the extra, it is well worth the upgrade. Folding and Height adjustable. Find the exact height that suits you so you can BRun in comfort. The stem is Indexed and Adjustable to suit your height. There is 130mm of adjustment in a vertical direction so you can find the height that most suits you, and then lock it in place with the unique index design. Stiff and ridged, for a powerful Ride. The stem will always feel solid and not flex side to side like other brands, which means you can concentrate on your workout. Built to last – it is forged from 6061 Aluminium that then un - dergoes two heat treatment processes to double it’s strength. Forging, unlike casting, strengthens the metals grain structures to make then stiff and strong. It is then precision CNC ma - chined and annodised. Easy storage and transportation with the Collapsible Steer - ing column Convenient handle for carrying. Premium liquid paint Non-Folding Light weight aluminium front forks that accept a high volume 26 inch wheel Nuvinci N330 Infinetly Variable Gear system allow you to change gears in one continuous motion, a bit like a light dim - mer. Simply adjust the gears by twisting the gear shifter on the handlebars for continuous progression from one speed to another, with no abrupt ratio changes or harsh gear en - gagements so you can always find the cadence you want. The N330 has a 330% range and is almost maintenance free. 20 inch rear and a 26 inch front wheel. Dual walled alloy rims. The ride comfort of a BR is enhanced by using a 26 inch front wheel. A more comfortable ride means a more enjoyable workout. The larger front wheel, with 1.95 wide tires allows for over 3 times the air volume in the tires. This acts like a suspension system creating a smoother ride.If you want improved ride comfort and handling, the 26 inch wheel is for you. s ummary s teering Frame Forks g ear s ystem Wheels Superior handling Infinitely variable transmission Amazing performance and value Used by World Champions Marathoners Star Rating i m P roved design g en2 The perfect foray into the exciting world of Bionic Running. The Gen2 is built on our proprietary Bionic Running technology. It is an all-rounder that offers amazing bang for your buck . Disc brakes, 8 speed internal gear hub, and alloy frame. It folds in half, so it is easier to transport and store. It comes standard with the Patented 60:40 swing stance phase timing, so you get a High Intensity workout. Folding , forged aluminium, heat treated for strength Folding Steel front forks that accept a 20 inch wheel S turmey Archer 8 speed internal gear hub with a 325% range . 20 inch wheels front and rear with a 1.35 wide Kenda tyres World’s best value running trainner Folds for easy transport 8 speed internal gear hub Disc brakes Star Rating Biggest s eller
39. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 39 except in laboratory sit - uations. Even in labs, it’s evident that mammals need their microbes, as their absence impacts multiple stress-related neu - rotransmitter systems. As if that weren’t enough, the mi - crobiome also affects the structure and function of the amygdala, an - other key stress-related brain region. The amygdala is critical for emotional learning and social behaviour, and is critical for the management of be - havioural and physiological respons - es to stressful stimuli, especially those that trigger anxiety and/or fear. So how can we improve our gut microbiome? Probiotic and prebiotic supplementation look promising for this purpose. Consuming fermented foods can introduce beneficial bac - teria to the intestinal landscape, and terial status of the gut is manipulated. Probiotics influence anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors A recent study has demonstrat - ed that feeding healthy male Balb/C mice L. rhamnosus decreased anxi - ety-like and depressive-like behaviors in the EPM, forced swim test (FST), and OF . The probiotic-treated group showed increased entries into the open arms of the EPM, spent less time immobile in the FST, and in - creased entries and time spent in the center of the OF. In a similar study, adult rats that had undergone mater - nal separation in the neonatal period showed a reduction in depressive- like symptoms after treatment with probi - otic B. infantism, a behavioral effect that was also observed following anti- depressant (citalopram) treatment In experiments that result in in - creased GI inflamma- tion, there are notable increases in anxiety-like be - havior. In the limited work that does exist, however, there is evidence that pro - biotics have similar antidepres- sive and anxiolytic effects as those ob - served in preclinical studies. In a dou - ble-blind, placebo-controlled, ran - domized parallel group clinical trial, healthy subjects were given a mixture of probiotics containing Lactobacil - lus helveticus R0052 and B. longum R0175 or placebo for 30 days and then evaluated. Using various ques - tionnaires designed to assess anx - iety, depression, stress, and coping mechanisms, the probiotic treatment group demonstrated significantly less psychological distress than did matched controls . Similarly, in another double-blind, placebo-con - trolled tri- al, healthy subjects were fed either a probiotic-containing milk drink or placebo control for 3 weeks, with mood and cognition assessed before treatment and after 10 and 20 days of consumption. Subjects who initially scored in the lowest third for depressed mood showed significant im- provement in symptoms after probiotic treatment . fecal transplants are an unusual but sometimes necessarily drastic mea - sure for those with extremely dam - aged intestinal flora. New studies show that bacteria, including commensal, probi- otic, and pathogenic bacteria, in the gastroin - testinal (GI) tract can activate neural pathways and central nervous sys - tem (CNS) signaling systems. In addition to modulating HPA axis function, microbiota may influ - ence CNS function directly through neuronal activation of stress circuits. Studies using oral administra- tion of food-borne pathogens, Citrobacter rodentium and Campylobacter je - juni, provide evidence that bacteria re- siding in the GI tract can activate stress circuits through activation of vagal pathways rodent behavioral re - sponses are impacted when the bac - There is evidence that probiotics have similar anti-depressive and anxiety-reducing effects in humans.
38. BI on I c runn E r January 2018 38 The Gut- b rain Connection or a long time, a per - sistent theory circu - lated that stegosaurus and other large dino - saurs had one brain in their skulls, and an - other, separate brain at the base of their tails. Alas, it’s not true. If it were true, I’d have the perfect segue into this article about the con - nection between our intestines and our brains. Segues aside, and unlike the mythical dinosaur butt brain, the human gut-brain connection is very real. New studies show that bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract can activate neural pathways and central nervous system signaling systems. Studies us - ing oral administration of food-borne pathogens provide evidence that bacteria residing in the GI tract can affect the release of neurotransmit - ters, communicating with the brain via the vagus nerve. In other words, mice act differently when their gut bacteria is altered in a lab setting. In experiments on mice that result in gut inflammations, the mice appear to be more anxious. Fascinatingly, administration of probiotics seems to be more effective than an SSRI at relieving depressive symptoms. You may be thinking that mice don’t have a heck of a lot in common with humans, and while a mouse may feel happier after eating yogurt that doesn’t mean much to me as a human being, and you’d be right. Luckily, however, there have been studies performed on hu - man subjects that bear out these results. There is evidence that probiotics have similar an - ti-depressive and anxiety-re - ducing effects in humans. In a double-blind, placebo-con - trolled, randomized parallel group clinical trial, healthy subjects were given a mixture of probiotics con - taining Lactobacillus helveticus and B. longum (or placebo) for 30 days and then evaluated. Using various questionnaires assessing anxiety, de - pression, stress, and coping mecha - nisms, the probiotic treatment group demonstrated significantly less psy - chological distress than the placebo group. When we consider that the sur - face area of the intestines is 100 times greater than the surface area of the skin on our bodies, it makes sense that such a large organ would have significant impact on our bod - ies’ systems. Our guts influence our hormonal signalling, and the brain in - fluences the activity of the effector cells of the gut lining. In turn, those cells are influenced by the gut’s mi - crobiota. The initial research into this phenomenon took place more than 20 years ago, after pa - tients suffering from hepatic enceph - alopathy had dramatic improvements in wellbeing after receiving oral an - tibiotic treatment. The antibiotics al - tered the patients’ gut biome, result - ing in altered affect and behaviour. Though they are tiny, gut microbes are numerous. The total weight of your gut microbes is 1–2 kg, similar to the weight of the human brain. Microbiota and their host organ - isms co-evolved and are mutually co-dependent for survival. If you’re creeped out by the idea of bugs in your guts, consider that mammals have never existed without microbes, f he A lth It is with great sadness that I share this report from smithsonianmag.com: “contrary to popular myth, dinosaurs didn’t have butt brains”.
5. January 2018 BI on I c runn E r 5 He remembers running what he calls “the distance races” in school – two miles, then 1500 meters and 5 kilometers in college. After school, he joined a local track club, Marathom’s Racing Team, named for Thom Lacie, owner of a lo - cal running shop. “I found out I was a better road runner,” Bill says. He increased his distances to 10 kilometers and even half marathons, and discovered he was well suited to those lengths. “I always did well in my age group,” he says. His fruitful running career cul - minated in a second place finish in a 25-kilometer run on Santa Catalina Island off the Califor - nia coast. Eventually, he stopped rac - ing, but never lost his love of running. “Even when I quit competitive running, running was still pretty im - portant to me,” he says. “Just getting outside and getting that renewed en - ergy and endorphin rush was key.” From 10K to 10 seconds Bill ran for over thirty years in all, and it was hard to imagine a life without the sport. But his heart surprised him. “I had some difficulty running, and went to the doctor to find out what might be the problem,” he says. It wasn’t great news. “Within two months I had bypass surgery,” he says. Despite this unexpected, potential - ly life-changing experience, Bill was still quite optimistic. After all, plenty of people bounce back from heart surgery to lead normal lives again. He was sure he would, too. At first, he made a quick recovery: “A month and a half later I was walk - ing and running, thinking things were going to be alright.” But more health problems cropped up. “A stomach problem turned out to be problems with diverticulitis,” Bill says. “I had another surgery with a temporary colostomy.” From there things got rough. “Another surgery because of com - plications, then a fourth surgery to reconnect,” he says. Nor was he out of the woods yet. “With all the surgeries, I had a her - nia which required a more compli - cated hernia surgery which kept me in the hospital for about a week,” he remembers. “Whew! And that was all within a year and a half.” These many medical problems had taken their toll. It took Bill more than a year just to get back to walking reg - ularly – forget about running. “I bought a bike and slowly started riding,” he says. “Any time I started to try running for a short period of time knocked me out to the point I need - ed to lie down to recover.” Training on his bike did gradual - ly make it possible to run again, but he was a long, long way from those 10Ks in his memory. “As my biking became more profi - cient I again tried running and could do it for maybe 10-15 seconds at a time with long rests,” Bill says. “I probably only did three to four of those on a 30 minute walk.” ‘ m y road back to running’ Bill didn’t think it likely he’d be doing much running ever again, given that he had to lie down and rest after even a short jog. But one day that changed, and he became hopeful again. “I saw an ad for the Bionic Runner,” he says. “And I tried to read everything I could about it.” After thinking it over, he decided to purchase one. “I was convinced this would be my road back to running,” he says. Using the Bionic Runner he no - ticed his stamina was improving as he worked up to half-hour rides on the device. “The thing I most like about it is how it’s so much like running,” Bill says. He had done some biking after his surgeries, but although it gave him a bit of exercise it wasn’t truly like running. Training on the Bionic Runner has also allowed Bill to run a bit longer – for up to two minutes straight – on his walks. “I attribute it all to my Bionic Run - ner,” he says. For the first time in a long time, Bill is more optimistic about his running future, and he plans to keep using the Bionic Runner no matter what. “I know if my running becomes more routine I will always use the Bi - onic Runner to complement it.” Using the Bionic Runner he noticed his stamina was improving as he worked up to half-hour rides on the device.
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